Thursday, July 22, 2021

20 Works, June 26th. is Pierre-Jules Jollivet's day, his story, illustrated with footnotes #173

Pierre Jules Jollivet, 1794-1871
The Creation of Eve
Painting on lava
Malesherbes city, IX ardt.
I have no further description, at this time

According to the second chapter of Genesis, Eve was created by God (Yahweh) by taking her from the rib of Adam, to be Adam's companion.

Pierre-Jules Jollivet (26 June 1794, Paris – 7 September 1871, Paris) was a French painter and lithographer who worked mostly in the Romantic style and is largely known for genre scenes.

Pierre Jules Jollivet, 1794-1871
The original sin
Painting on lava
Malesherbes city, IX ardt.
I have no further description, at this time

Christians have traditionally taken the story told in Genesis 3, in which Adam and Eve disobey God by eating the fruit of the forbidden tree and are consequently expelled from Eden, as telling of the origin of all human sin, but it is not named as sin in Genesis and many contemporary scholars have cast doubt on this traditional understanding of the origins of humans and of sin. The original sin

He initially studied architecture. It was only in 1822 that he decided to focus on painting instead. That year, he entered the École des Beaux-arts de Paris and remained there until 1825. His primary instructors were François-Louis Dejuinne and Antoine-Jean Gros; both painters of historical and genre scenes.

Pierre Jules Jollivet, 1794-1871
The Artist's Studio
37.1 x 46.3 cms | 14 1/2 x 18 ins
Oil on panel
Private collection

Pierre Jules Jollivet, 1794-1871
Ladies In A Pompeian Interior, c. 1866
Oil on panel
32.6 x 41 cms | 12 3/4 x 16 ins
I have no further description, at this time

At the same time, he became interested in lithography, a new printing method devised in the 1790s by the actor, Alois Senefelder. In 1826, this interest took him to Spain to work on a catalog of the paintings belonging to King Ferdinand VII at the Royal Palace of Madrid. He eventually contributed eighteen plates for that publication. he remained there for a short time after completing his work before returning to Paris.

Jollivet, Pierre-Jules 
Godefroy de Bouillon holds the first meetings of the kingdom of Jerusalem, January 1100, c. 1838-1839
Oil on canvas
H. 70; L. 79 cm.
National Museum of the Palaces of Versailles and Trianon

Godfrey of Bouillon was a Frankish nobleman and one of the pre-eminent leaders of the First Crusade. He was the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1099 to 1100.

Jollivet, Pierre-Jules 
Louis le Gros takes the banner at Saint-Denis, 1124, c. 
Oil on canvas
H. 64.5; L. 106 cm
National Museum of the Palaces of Versailles and Trianon

The Oriflamme was the sacred gold and red banner of St. Denis, patron saint of France, borne by the kings of France in battle. It was first taken to battle by King Louis le Gros in 1124. It is depicted in Medieval manuscript images variously as without decoration, or bearing the gold words "S. Denys", or a golden sun. Displayed in battle, it meant that no quarter was to be given, no mercy shown. It was carried alongside the blue and gold fleur de lys Banner of France. It was a great honor to be chosen the Bearer of the Oriflamme, and the Bearer swore an oath to guard the Oriflamme with his life. More on the banner at Saint-Denis

Pierre-Jules Jollivet  (1794–1871)
Capture of Foix castle, 1272, c. 1837
Oil on canvas
Height: 387 cm (12.6 ft); Width: 273 cm (107.4 in)
Museum of the History of France / Palace of Versailles 

The Château de Foix (Languedocien: Castèl de Fois) is a castle which dominates the town of Foix in the French département of Ariège. 

Built In the style of 7th-century fortification, the castle is known from 987. In 1002, it was mentioned in the will of Roger I, Count of Carcassonne, who bequeathed the fortress to his youngest child, Bernard. In effect, the family ruling over the region were installed here which allowed them to control access to the upper Ariège valley and to keep surveillance from this strategic point over the lower land, protected behind impregnable walls.

The castle resisted repeated sieges (1212–17) by the Norman crusader Simon de Montfort but was taken by King Philip the Bold of France (See below) in 1272. More on Capture of Foix castle

Pierre-Jules Jollivet  (1794–1871)
Philippe III, the Bold, King of France (1245-1285), c. 1837
Oil on canvas
H. 65; L. 56 cm
Museum of the History of France / Palace of Versailles 

Pierre-Jules Jollivet  (1794–1871)
Capture of Foix castle, 1272, c. 1837
Oil on canvas
 H. 68; L. 140 cm
Museum of the History of France / Palace of Versailles 

In order to reconquer the lost papal lands, Julius II organized an anti-Venetian alliance, the League of Cambrai (1508). All the great powers of Italy, along with those across the Alps—the Holy Roman Empire, France, and Spain—joined forces to defeat the Venetians at Agnadello (May 14, 1509). But dissension among the victorious allies, who were manipulated by skillful Venetian diplomacy, turned the alliance against France, because that kingdom now seemed to be the greatest power in Italy. A Holy League, organized in 1511 to curtail French power in Lombardy, restored the Medici in Florence in 1512 with the help of Spanish arms and allowed Venice to keep its old terra ferma (mainland) empire. Nonetheless, Agnadello profoundly shook Venetian self-confidence and remained the turning point in the republic’s imperial ambitions in mainland Italy. More on Battle of Agnadello

Pierre-Jules Jollivet  (1794–1871)
Combat of Hooglede, June 13, 1794, c.  1835-1836
Oil on canvas
H. 247; L. 162.5 cm.
National Museum of the Palaces of Versailles and Trianon

The Combat of Hooglede takes place during the Peasants' War of of 1798; a counter-revolutionary insurrection of peasants from Flanders , the Liège region and Luxembourg against the French Republic .

In 1794 , the French victory at the Battle of Fleurus provokes the invasion and annexation to the French Republic of the Austrian Netherlands which become the nine departments united . The insurgency breaks out in October 1798, by rejecting anti-Catholic laws and conscription established by the Republicans. It ends in December when the gatherings are crushed by the French during various decisive battles in Bornem , Diest , Mol and Hasselt. More on Combat of Hooglede

He established himself as a painter of genre and historical scenes and drew on his experiences in Spain for inspiration. After acquiring a small amount of notoriety, he began to exhibit his works in 1831. His initial presentation consisted entirely of Spanish-themed works; some in homage to Diego Velázquez. In 1833, he was awarded a prize at the Salon for his "Brigands of the Kingdom of Valencia".

Jollivet, Jules (Paris, 1794 - Paris, 1871)
Guerrilla, c. 1834
Oil on canvas
Height: 0.74 m; Width: 0.922 m
Musée du Louvre

Group of men armed with rifles in a lighted cave including one leaning against a donkey. Silhouttes stand between the rocks. More on this painting

Pierre-Jules Jollivet  (1794–1871)
Gypsies Resting in the Mountains of Ronda, c. 1832
Oil on canvas
Height: 46 cm (18.1 in); Width: 38.1 cm (15 in)
Musée Rolin

The Mountains of Ronda abounds with tales of gypsies, bandits and smugglers set in a landscape of cork oak forest, hidden mountain trails and open pastures. In fact, the role of the bandit is so entrenched in local culture that Ronda even has a Museo de Bandolero, the only one of its kind, the museum details the folklore and psychology of the bandits and highwaymen who once frequented the landscape. More on Mountains of Ronda

Pierre-Jules Jollivet
Couple of Gypsies playing dice, c. 1830
Watercolor
30 x 22 cm
Private collection

Jollivet, Jules (Paris, 1794 - Paris, 1871)
Lara, c. 1834
Oil on canvas
Height: 1.31 m: 1.57 m; Width: 1.145 m
Musée du Louvre

Lara, A Tale was first published anonymously by Lord Byron in 1814. This tragic narrative poem is seen as a continuation of another poem of Byron's, The Corsair. It details Count Lara's return home after spending a few years travelling abroad. With a page as his only company, Lara's story continues as he encounters problems with his fellow men. First, this leads to a duel that Count Lara ends up winning and as the story progresses, he must also fight both friends and foes. Count Lara is successful in his battle against all odds, until one night he encounters a large group and attempts to fight them. Unfortunately, he is mortally wounded in the process and dies at the end of the poem. More on Lara

A privateer standing with his fist on a table covered with a velvet carpet bordered with a book and a skull. Page Kaled in dark doublet and red stockings beside him is Gulnare the woman in love with him. More on this painting

Back in France, according to Ossorio, with a large collection of studies and sketches of our costumes and customs, he painted genre paintings set in romantic Spain such as the Gypsy Parade in the mountains of Ronda at the Rolin de Autun museum, and A Guerrilla (See above) of the Museum of the Louvre, presented at the Salon of 1834.

Pierre-Jules JOLLIVET (1794-1871)
Peasants in the countryside
Oil on canvas
Soissons museum

Pierre-Jules JOLLIVET (1794-1871)
Resting place
Oil on canvas
65 x 80 cm. 
Private collection

For many years, works on Spanish subjects would predominate in his oeuvre. In the latter part of the 1830s, King Louis-Philippe I placed him in charge of creating a series of large historical panels for the Musée de l’Histoire de France. Two of the best known depict the Battle of Hooglede (1794) and Godefroy de Bouillon presenting the first assizes for the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He also did an etching, showing the Battle of Tourcoing.


JOLLIVET: Paris, 1794; Paris, 1871
The Massacre of the Innocents, c. 1844
Oil on canvas
Height in cm: 326; Width in cms: 421
Rouen ; Museum of Fine Arts

The Massacre of the Innocents is the incident in the nativity narrative of the Gospel of Matthew in which Herod the Great, king of Judea, orders the execution of all male children two years old and under in the vicinity of Bethlehem. The Catholic Church regards them as the first Christian martyrs. A majority of Herod biographers, and "probably a majority of biblical scholars," hold the event to be myth, legend or folklore. The Massacre of the Innocents

Drawing for a study of a grieving woman and her dead child on the far right of the painting

Pierre Jules JOLLIVET (Paris 1794 - 1871)
The crowning with thorns, c. 1839
Oil on canvas
40 x 32 cm
Private collection

One of the soldiers is about to place the sorrowful crown on Christ's head, and another presents him with the fragile scepter which becomes a reason for laughing by the multitude. This situation allowed the painter to give, without inconvenience, to the figure of Christ, an expression of calm and serenity which suits the resignation and the dignity of his character. More on this painting

This painting is probably a completed sketch of the painting presented by the artist at the Salon of 1840, currently not located.

Pierre-Jules Jollivet  (1794–1871)
The Entombment, c. 1840
Oil on canvas
Height: 81.1 cm (31.9 in); Width: 53 cm (20.8 in)
Musée des Beaux-Arts de la ville de Paris

The burial of Jesus refers to the burial of the body of Jesus after crucifixion, described in the New Testament. According to the canonical gospel accounts, he was placed in a tomb by a man named Joseph of Arimathea. In art, it is often called the Entombment of Christ. More on The Entombment

Jollivet, Pierre-Jules (Paris, 26–06–1794 - Paris, 09–1871), painter
Saint Peter healing a lame man at the temple door, c. 1843
Sketch for the old Saint-Ambroise church
Oil on canvas
Petit Palais, Museum of Fine Arts of the City of Paris

He painted some religious works as well, such as a "Massacre of the Innocents" (See above), and participated in the decoration of several Parisian churches; including Saint-Ambroise, Saint-Antoine-des-Quinze-Vingts and Saint-Vincent-de-Paul. For the latter, he used an innovative ceramic painting technique; applied to large slabs of lava from Volvic. In 1844, he returned to Saint-Vincent-de-Paul to create a tableau representing the Trinity. Other paintings were added later. One, depicting Adam and Eve in Paradise, contained nudity and created a scandal. It was removed in 1861, placed out of sight, and not restored to its original position until 2011. More on Pierre-Jules Jollivet




Please visit my other blogs: Art CollectorMythologyMarine ArtPortrait of a Lady, The OrientalistArt of the Nude and The Canals of VeniceMiddle East Artists365 Saints and 365 Days, also visit my Boards on Pinterest

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.

Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.


Wednesday, July 21, 2021

15 Works, June 25th. is Robert Scott Lauder's day, his story, illustrated with footnotes #172

Robert Scott Lauder (1803–1869)
The Shepherdess
Oil on canvas
H 75 x W 111 cm
Paisley Museum and Art Galleries

Robert Scott Lauder RSA (25 June 1803 – 21 April 1869) was a Scottish artist who described himself as a "historical painter". He was one of the original members of the Royal Scottish Academy.

Robert Scott Lauder (1803–1869)
The Bride of Lammermoor, c. 1831
Oil on canvas
H 97.8 x W 126.4 cm
Dundee Art Galleries and Museums Collection

The Bride of Lammermoor is a historical novel by Sir Walter Scott, published in 1819. The novel is set in the Lammermuir Hills of south-east Scotland, shortly before the Act of Union of 1707, or shortly after the Act. It tells of a tragic love affair between young Lucy Ashton and her family's enemy Edgar Ravenswood. Scott indicated the plot was based on an actual incident. The Bride of Lammermoor and A Legend of Montrose were published together anonymously as the third of Scott's Tales of My Landlord series. The story is the basis for Donizetti's 1835 opera Lucia di Lammermoor.

The story recounts the tragic love of Lucy Ashton and Edgar, Master of Ravenswood. Edgar's father was stripped of his title for supporting the deposed King James VII. Lucy's ambitious father, Sir William Ashton, then bought the Ravenswood estate. Edgar hates Sir William for this usurpation of his family's heritage, but on meeting Lucy, falls in love with her, and renounces his plans for vengeance. More on The Bride of Lammermoor

Robert Scott Lauder (1803–1869)
The Trial of Effie Deans
Oil on canvas
H 143.5 x W 236.5 cm
Hospitalfield House, Angus, Scotland

The Heart of Mid-Lothian is the seventh of Sir Walter Scott's Waverley Novels, under the title of Tales of My Landlord. The author was given as "Jedediah Cleishbotham, Schoolmaster and Parish-clerk of Gandercleugh". The main action, which takes place between September 1736 and May 1737, is set in motion by the Porteous Riots in Edinburgh and involves an epic journey from Edinburgh to London by a working-class girl to obtain a royal commutation of the death penalty incurred by her sister for the alleged murder of her new-born baby. More on Effie Deans

Robert Scott Lauder (1803–1869)
The penance of Jane Shore
Oil on canvas
133 x 180 cm. (52.4 x 70.9 in.)
Private collection

Elizabeth "Jane" Shore was one of the many mistresses of King Edward IV of England. She became the best-known to history through being later accused of conspiracy by the future King Richard III, and compelled to do public penance. She was also a sometime mistress of other noblemen, including Edward's stepson. She ended her life in bourgeois respectability. More on Jane Shore

Lauder was born at Silvermills, Edinburgh, the third son of Helen Tait (d.1850) and John Lauder of Silvermills (d. 1838), Burgess of Edinburgh and proprietor of the tannery at Silvermills. After attending the Royal High School he went to London, where his eldest brother William was engaged in the family business.

Robert Scott Lauder (1803–1869)
A LADY AND HER KNIGHT ERRANT, POSSIBLY A SCENE FROM IVANHOE
Oil on canvas,
64 x 49cm
Private collection

He returned to Edinburgh in about 1826 and was elected one of the original members of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1830. At this point Lauder was living with his brother William Lauder. On 9 September 1833 at St Cuthbert's Church in Edinburgh he married Isabella Ramsay Thomson and they then went abroad, accompanied by his younger artist-brother, James Eckford Lauder. Robert studied for some years in Rome, Florence, Bologna, Venice and Munich.

Robert Scott Lauder
Ruth
Oil on canvas
50 x 40 in. (127 x 101.6 cm.)
Private collection

Ruth was a Moabite woman had come to Israel as the widow of an Israelite man. She had returned with her mother-in-law, Naomi, who had also lost her husband. They lived together in a humble situation, and Ruth would go to the fields each day to glean food in the fields during the harvest.
 
Boaz was a landowner where Ruth came to find grain. He knew of her situation and told his workers to leave plenty of grain for her to find. Boaz also offered her food with the other workers and encouraged her to work in the safety of his fields throughout the harvest.

Robert Scott Lauder
Ruth
Oil on canvas laid down
127cm x 101.5cm
Private collection
 
Naomi noted that Boaz was a close relative who, according to Jewish law, had the right to marry Ruth after the death of her husband. Naomi encouraged Ruth to go to Boaz in the evening and present herself willing to accept a marriage proposal from him. When she did, he was pleased, yet noted that there was one relative who was closer in line to marry Ruth.
 
The next day, Boaz met with this relative and presented the situation. The relative turned down the offer as he felt it would cause harm to his own family situation. Boaz then made a commitment in front of the town’s leaders that he would take Ruth as his wife. More about Ruth

Robert Scott Lauder (1803–1869)
Hagar and Ishmael
Oil on panel.
33 x 29cm (13 x 11 1/2in)
Private collection

Hagar is a biblical person in the Book of Genesis Chapter 16. She was an Egyptian handmaid of Sarah, who gave her to Abraham "to wife" to bear a child. The product of the union was Abraham's firstborn, Ishmael, the progenitor of the Ishmaelites.

After Sarah gave birth to Isaac, and the tension between the women returned. At a celebration after Isaac was weaned, Sarah found the teenage Ishmael mocking her son, and demanded that Abraham send Hagar and her son away. She declared that Ishmael would not share in Isaac's inheritance. Abraham was greatly distressed but God told Abraham to do as his wife commanded because God's promise would be carried out through both Isaac and Ishmael.

The name Hagar originates from the Book of Genesis, and is only alluded to in the Qur'an. She is considered Abraham's second wife in the Islamic faith and acknowledged in all Abrahamic faiths. In mainstream Christianity, she is considered a concubine to Abraham. More on Hagar

Robert Scott Lauder (1803–1869)
Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple (after Titian)
Oil on canvas
H 74.7 x W 140.6 cm
Royal Scottish Academy of Art & Architecture

The Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, or The Entry of the Most Holy Theotokos into the Temple, is a liturgical feast. The feast is associated with an event recounted not in the New Testament, but in the apocryphal Infancy Narrative of James. According to that text, Mary's parents, Joachim and Anne, who had been childless, received a heavenly message that they would have a child. In thanksgiving for the gift of their daughter, they brought her, when still a child, to the Temple in Jerusalem to consecrate her to God. Later versions of the story tell us that Mary was taken to the Temple at around the age of three in fulfillment of a vow. Tradition held that she was to remain there to be educated in preparation for her role as Mother of God. More on The Presentation of Mary

This is a reduced copy of Titian’s Presentation of the Virgin (335 x 775 cm, 1534-1538, Gallerie dell'Accademia). Lauder resided in Rome between 1833 and 1838, and he probably saw and executed this copy when passing through Venice upon his slow return to Britain in 1838. More on this painting

Robert Scott Lauder (1803–1869)
Study for 'Christ Teacheth Humility', c.1847
Oil on canvas
H 32.5 x W 57.6 cm
National Galleries of Scotland, Scottish National Gallery

Robert Scott LauderScottish
Christ Teacheth Humility, c. 1847
Oil on canvas
National Galleries of Scotland

The rebuilding of the Houses of Parliament after the devasting fire of 1834 prompted the state to encourage the production of large-scale narrative paintings through a series of public competitions. Lauder, who was based in London for a time, took two years to complete this work which he entered into the 1847 competition. The jury admired Lauder's effort, but his rich colours and luscious paintwork were not to their taste, and his submission was rejected. Two years, later the Royal Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scotland purchased the painting to make it one of the very first works in the collection of the National Gallery of Scotland. More on this painting

Robert Scott Lauder (1803–1869) (attributed to)
Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery
Oil on paper pasted to board
H 38.2 x W 24.7 cm
National Galleries of Scotland, Scottish National Gallery

Jesus was teaching in the temple after coming from the Mount of Olives. A group of scribes and Pharisees confronts Jesus, interrupting his teaching. They bring in a woman, accusing her of committing adultery, claiming she was caught in the very act. They tell Jesus that the punishment for someone like her should be stoning, as prescribed by Mosaic Law.[1] Jesus begins to write something on the ground using his finger. But when the woman's accusers continue their challenge, he states that the one who is without sin is the one who should cast the first stone at her. The accusers and congregants depart realizing not one of them is without sin either, leaving Jesus alone with the woman. Jesus asks the woman if anyone has condemned her and she answers no. Jesus says that he, too, does not condemn her, and tells her to go and sin no more. More on Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery

Robert Scott Lauder (1803–1869)
The Crucifixion (study)
Oil on canvas
H 123.2 x W 83.1 cm
Royal Scottish Academy of Art & Architecture

Robert Scott Lauder (1803–1869)
Christ and the Two Disciples on the Way to Emmaus, c. 1850
Oil on canvas
H 119 x W 98.4 cm
Dundee Art Galleries and Museums Collection (Dundee City Council)

Luke indicates that Jesus appears after his resurrection to two disciples who are walking from Jerusalem to Emmaus, which is described as being 60 stadia. One of the disciples is named Cleopas. More on Emmaus

Lauder returned to London in 1838 where he lived for several years. Whilst in London he exhibited at the Royal Academy and competed in the Westminster Hall competition of 1847, sending his Christ walking on the Sea, which was subsequently purchased by Lady Angela Burdett-Coutts, 1st Baroness Burdett-Coutts. He became the first president of the short-lived National Institution of Fine Arts and also exhibited there.

Robert Scott Lauder (1803–1869) (pupil of)
Life Study of Two Nude Models
Oil on canvas
H 70.4 x W 50.5 cm
Edinburgh College of Art (University of Edinburgh)

He later removed back to Edinburgh in 1849. Sir Walter Scott's novels provided him with subjects for many of his most successful historical paintings. About 1860 he suffered a paralytic stroke and did not practice after 1861. He died at Edinburgh from a bout of bronchitis on 21 April 1869, still paralysed. More on Robert Scott Lauder




Please visit my other blogs: Art CollectorMythologyMarine ArtPortrait of a Lady, The OrientalistArt of the Nude and The Canals of VeniceMiddle East Artists365 Saints and 365 Days, also visit my Boards on Pinterest

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.

Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.


Tuesday, July 20, 2021

17 Works, June 24th. is Jan Matejko's day, his story, illustrated with footnotes #171

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Prophecy of the Ukrainian Bard
Oil on canvas
Height: 292 cm, Width: 206 cm
National Museum in Krakow

Wernyhora is a legendary 18th century Cossack bard who prophetized the fall of Poland and its subsequent rebirth and flourishing, "from Black to White sea".

He has been a subject of several folklore tales and poems, particularly in the 19th century romanticism in Poland. More on Wernyhora

Jan Alojzy Matejko (also known as Jan Mateyko; 24 June 1838 – 1 November 1893) was a Polish painter, a leading 19th-century exponent of history painting, known for depicting nodal events from Polish history.

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
The Shuyski Tsars before Zygmunt III, c. 1853
Oil on canvas
Height: 75.5 cm (29.7 in); Width: 108 cm (42.5 in)
National Museum in Wrocław

Shuysky tribute was the act of homage of the deposed Mickail Shuysky of Russia and his retinue to the Polish King Sigismund III Vasa and teenage prince Władysław on October 29, 1611, in the Senate Hall of the Royal Castle in Warsaw.

Hetman of the Crown Stanisław Żółkiewski, who had captured Moscow the previous year, held a victory procession to the Royal Palace through the city of Warsaw, leading with him the prisoners: the Russian tsar Vasily IV Shuysky, his two brothers Ivan and Dmitry, the wife of the latter, Grand Duchess Ekaterina Grigoryevna, military commander Mikhail Shein, and Patriarch Filaret who would ascend to power in Russia later on as the father and de facto ruler behind the back of his son Michael I of Russia, the founder of the Romanov Dynasty. More on the Shuysky tribute

Czars Shuysky introduced by Hetman Stanislaw Zolkiewski of parliament in Warsaw before King Sigismund III, Jan Matejko, 1853

Matejko showed an early artistic talent, but had great difficulty with other academic subjects. Despite that, and because of his exceptional skill, at the age of fourteen he entered the School of Fine Arts in Kraków. He opted for historical painting as his specialism, and finished his first major work, The Shuyski Tsars before Zygmunt III, in 1853 (See above). During this time, he began exhibiting historical paintings at the Kraków Society of Friends of Fine Arts from 1855.

His graduation project in 1858 was Sigismund I the Old ennobles professors of the Jagiellonian University (See below) and proved to be seminal.

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Sigismund I the Old ennobles professors of the Jagiellonian University, c. 1858
Oil on canvas
Height: 82 cm (32.2 in); Width: 101 cm (39.7 in)
Jagiellonian University Museum

After graduation in 1859, Matejko received a scholarship to study at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich. The following year he received a further scholarship to study at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, but after only a few days returned to Kraków. He set up a studio at his family home. It took years before he met with commercial success. He struggled as the proverbial "starving artist", who finally celebrated when he managed to sell the Shuyski Tsars... canvas for five gulden.

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Stańczyk, c. 1862
Oil on canvas
Height: 88 cm (34.6 in); Width: 120 cm (47.2 in)
National Museum in Warsaw 

Stańczyk during a ball at the court of Queen Bona in the face of the loss of the City of Smolensk. This painting was acquired by the Warsaw National Museum in 1924. During World War II it was looted by the Nazis and subsequently by the Soviet Union, but was returned to Poland around 1956.

The painting's primary component is the contrast between the solemn jester and the lively ball going on in the background. The painting has created an image of Stańczyk that has become iconic and widely recognized in Poland. 

Stańczyk, the male figure depicted in the painting, was the court jester when Poland was at the height of its political, economic and cultural power during the era of the Renaissance in Poland, during the reign of King Sigismund I the Old. Besides his fame as a jester he has been described as an eloquent, witty, and intelligent man, using satire to comment on the nation's past, present, and future. Stańczyk's fame and legend were strong in his own time and enjoyed a resurgence in the 19th century, and he remains well known to this day. More on Stańczyk

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Killing of Wapowski during the coronation of Henry of Valois, c. 1861
Oil on canvas
Height: 132 cm (51.9 in); Width: 101 cm (39.7 in)
Silesian Museum

The Murder of Wapowski during the Coronation of Henri Valois is an early work, and it depicts an incident that occurred at Wawel Castle in 1574.

Wapowski, a dignitary of the crown, was mortally injured when he attempted to intervene in a fight between two noblemen on the coronation day of Henri Valois, Poland's first elected monarch.

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Jan Kochanowski over the dead body of his daughter, Urszulka
Sketch for an oil painting painted in 1892, now lost
Watercolor
I have no further description, at this time

His financial situation improved when he sold two paintings, The assassination of Wapowski during the coronation of Henri de Valois, 1861 (See above), and Jan Kochanowski over the body of his daughter Urszulka, 1862 (See above),  which settled his debts. 1862 saw the completion of his Stańczyk (See above), initially received without much acclaim, but in due course becoming one of Matejko's best known works. It marks a manifest departure in Matejko's art, from mere illustrator of history to commentator upon its moral content.

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Skarga's Sermon, c. 1864
Oil on canvas
Height: 224 cm (88.1 in); Width: 397 cm (13 ft)
 Royal Castle in Warsaw, Poland

Depicted people: Piotr Skarga, Germanico Malaspina, Janusz Radziwiłł, Stanisław Stadnicki, Mikołaj Zebrzydowski, Jerzy Mniszech, Jan Piotr Sapieha, Sigismund III Vasa, Władysław IV Vasa, Jan Zamoyski, Mikołaj Wolski, Stanisław Karnkowski, Ipatii Potii, Anna Jagiellon, Elizaveta Ostrogska.

The painting depicts a sermon on political matters by the Jesuit priest Piotr Skarga, a chief figure of the Counter Reformation in Poland, where he rebukes the Polish elite for neglecting the national interest.

Like other historical paintings by Matejko includes several portraits of identifiable historical figures of the period depicted, as well as in this case a self-portrait of the artist in the figure of Skarga. More on this painting

During the January Uprising of 1863, in which he did not directly take part on account of his poor health. Subsequently, his Skarga's Sermon, May 1864 (See above), was exhibited in the gallery of the Kraków Society of Friends of Fine Arts, which gained him much publicity. On 5 November that same year, he was elected member of the Kraków Scientific Society in recognition for his contributions to depicting great national historical themes. On 21 November he married Teodora Giebułtowska, with whom he went on to have five children. His daughter, Helena, also an artist, later helped World War I victims and was awarded the Cross of Independence.

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Rejtan - The Fall of Poland, c. 1866
Oil on canvas
Height: 282 cm (111 in); Width: 487 cm (15.9 ft)
 Royal Castle in Warsaw, Poland

Rejtan, or the Fall of Poland is an oil painting by Jan Matejko, finished in 1866, depicting the protest of Tadeusz Rejtan (lower right) against the First Partition of Poland during the Partition Sejm of 1773. Both a depiction of a historical moment, and an allegory for the surrounding period of Polish history, the painting is one of Matejko's most famous works, and an iconic picture of an emotional protest. More on this painting

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
The Union of Lublin, c. 1869
Oil on canvas
Height: 298 cm (117.3 in); Width: 512 cm (16.7 ft)
National Museum in Warsaw/ National Museum in Lublin

The Union of Lublin was signed on 1 July 1569 in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest countries in Europe at the time. It replaced the personal union of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy, since Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellons, remained childless after three marriages. The Duchy of Livonia, tied to Lithuania in real union since the Union of Grodno (1566), became a Polish–Lithuanian condominium. 

King Sigismund II Augustus holds the cross at the centre while surrounded by statesmen, diplomats, the clergy and nobles. More on The Union of Lublin

Depicted people, Sigismund II Augustus, Jakub Uchański, Marcin Zborowski, Filip Padniewski, Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł, Mikołaj Mielecki, Walerian Protasewicz, Stanislaus Hosius, Łukasz III, Górka, Jan Firlej, Albert Frederick, Anna Jagiellon, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski, Michał M. Wiśniowiecki, Roman Sanguszko. 

After 1865 Matejko's international recognition grew. His Skarga's Sermon was awarded a gold medal at the 1865 Paris Salon. In 1867, his painting Rejtan was awarded a gold medal at the World Exhibition in Paris. His next major painting was the Union of Lublin (See above), created during 1867-1869. Acclaimed in Paris, it won Matejko the Cross of the Légion d'honneur. It was followed by Stefan Batory at Pskov, finished in 1871 (See below). In 1872, he visited Istanbul and upon his return to Kraków finished The Astronomer Copernicus, or Conversations with God (See below). 

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Astronomer Copernicus, or Conversations with God, c. 1872
Oil on canvas
Height: 226 cm (88.9 in); Width: 315 cm (10.3 ft)
Jagiellonian University Museum 

Matejko began work on this painting in 1871 in preparation for the 400th anniversary of Copernicus's birth. He used research materials available in the Jagiellonian University, and made several preparatory pencil drawings and two oil sketches, prior to executing the painting.

The painting depicts the exalted cleric and scientist Nicolaus Copernicus - he was a canon of Frombork Cathedral - kneeling as he observes the heavens during the transition from night to dawn. He is high up on a balcony, supposedly in his observatory, near to cathedral in Frombork, surrounded by various astronomical instruments. By his side is his own heliocentric model drawn on a large flat board, based on an actual illustration from his De revolutionibus. The scene likely portrays the moment of revelation when Copernicus becomes convinced of his discovery. 

Most of Matejko's notable paintings consist of large group scenes. A scene with a single individual such as this, another being Stańczyk (See above), tends to be exceptional in his oeuvre. More on Copernicus

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Battle of Grunwald, c. 1878
Medium oil on canvas
Height: 426 cm (13.9 ft); Width: 987 cm (10.7 yd)
National Museum in Warsaw

Depicted people: 
  • was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians. He was also the Prince of Grodno, Prince of Lutsk, and the postulated king of the Hussites.
  • Ulrich von Jungingen was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. His policy of confrontation with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland would spark the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War and lead to disaster for his Order, and his own death, at the Battle of Grunwald.
  • Zyndram z Maszkowic was a Polish 14th and 15th century knight.
  • Kuno von Lichtenstein
  • Konrad VII the White was a Duke of Oels / Oleśnica, Koźle, half of Bytom and half of Ścinawa, sole Duke of Koźle and half of Bytom, Duke of Oleśnica and sole Duke of half of Ścinawa
  • Duke Casimir V of Pomerania was a member of the House of Griffins and a Duke of Pomerania. 
  • Jakub Skarbek from Góra was a knight, diplomat and participant in the Battle of Grunwald 
  • Marcin of Wrocimowice was a Polish knight and diplomat from the Półkozic clan.
  • Marquard (or Markward) von Salzbach was a Teutonic Knight, who played a prominent role in shaping the relationship between the Knights and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania between 1389 and 1410.
  • Jan Žižka z Trocnova a Kalicha was a Czech general – a contemporary and follower of Jan Hus and a Radical Hussite who led the Taborites. Žižka was a successful military leader.
  • Heinrich von Schwelborn, Frank by origin , was a member of the Teutonic Order and the Commander of Tuchola . He participated in the Battle of Grunwald on the side of the Teutonic Order, where he commanded the nineteenth banner.
  • Zawisza Czarny of Garbow, also known as Zawisza the Black, of Sulima coat of arms, was a Polish knight and nobleman who served as a commander and diplomat under Polish king Władysław II Jagiełło and Hungarian-Bohemian king Sigismund of Luxembourg
  • Jogaila (About this soundJogaila), later Władysław II Jagiełło was Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then King of Poland
  • Zbigniew Oleśnicki, was a high-ranking Roman Catholic clergyman and an influential Polish statesman and diplomat.
  • Stanislaus of Szczepanów, was a Bishop of Kraków known chiefly for having been martyred by the Polish king Bolesław II the Generous.
  • Werner von Tettingen was a knight and major of the Teutonic Order .
  • Heinrich von Plauen (the Elder) was the 27th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. He was a stern proponent of prolonging the war with Poland.
  • Jan Długosz from Niedzielsk was a a knight, starosta of Nowokorczyński and Brzeźnica .
  • Sigismund Korybut was a duke from the Gediminid dynasty, best known as a military commander of the Hussite army and a governor of Bohemia and Prague during the Hussite Wars.
  • Mikołaj Trąba, of Trąby coat of arms, was a Polish Roman Catholic priest, Royal Notary from 1390, Deputy Chancellor of the Crown, bishop of Halicz , archbishop of Gniezno, and first primate of Poland.
  • Siemowit IV (Ziemowit IV), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast from the Masovian branch, Duke of Rawa, and after the division of the paternal inheritance between him and his brother in 1381, ruler over Rawa, Płock, Sochaczew, Gostynin, Płońsk and Wizna,
The Battle of Grunwald is a huge canvas with a painting depiction of the last phase of the battle fought in the fields of Grunwald on July 15, 1410 between the Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian army and the Teutonic Order, supported by Western European knights. More on this painting

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Stephen Báthory at Pskov, c. 1872
Oil on canvas
Height: 322 cm (10.5 ft); Width: 512 cm (16.7 ft)
 Royal Castle in Warsaw, Poland

Depicted people: Stephen Báthory, Antonio Possevino

People of the Russian tsar Ivan the Terrible kneeling before the Polish king Stephen Báthory at Pskov during the final period of peace negotiations at the end of the 1578-1582 Livonian campaign. It also shows the papal legate, the black-robed Jesuit Antonio Possevino.

The painting depicts the events only metaphorically, as part of a broader narrative depicting the significance of the event outside of its immediate context – Ivan the Terrible himself never physically took part in the negotiations, let alone kneeling during them. More on this painting

In 1872, during an exhibition in Prague he was offered the directorship of the Prague Academy of Fine Arts, quickly followed by a similar offer from the Kraków School of Fine Arts. He accepted the Kraków position, and was for many years its principal. In 1874, he finished Hanging of the Sigismund bell at the Cathedral Tower (See below). 

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Hanging of the Sigismund bell at the Cathedral Tower in 1521, c. 1874
Oil on canvas
Height: 94 cm (37 in); Width: 189 cm (74.4 in)
National Museum in Warsaw 

Depicted people: 
  • Sigismund I the Old was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until his death in 1548.
  • Stańczyk was the court jester when Poland was at the height of its political, economic and cultural power
  • Bona Sforza was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania as the second wife of Sigismund I the Old, and Duchess of Bari and Rossano by her own right. She was a surviving member of the powerful House of Sforza, which ruled the Duchy of Milan since 1447.
  • Sigismund II Augustus was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548. He was the first ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the last male monarch from the Jagiellonian dynasty.
  • Jan Chojeński was a sixteenth-century Polish bureaucrat and church leader.[1] and beatified person.
  • Hans Beham, was a German painter and printmaker, mainly known for his very small engravings. 
  • Bartolommeo Berrecci was an Italian Renaissance architect who spent most of his career in Poland.
  • Bálint Bakfark was a Hungarian composer of Transylvanian Saxon origin, and lutenist of the Renaissance. 

The Hanging of the Sigismund bell at the Cathedral Tower in 1521 in Kraków is a painting finished in 1874. It depicts the installation of the Sigismund Bell in the Wawel Cathedral in Kraków in 1521. The bell was installed in the Sigismund Tower and rung for the first time on 13 July 1521. The bell is considered to be one of the national symbols of Poland. The painting shows a crowd of people, with a number of identifiable figures of historical importance. It conveys the Golden Era of the Polish Renaissance, and the power of the Kingdom of Poland. More on this painting

In 1878, he produced another masterpiece, The Battle of Grunwald (See above). That year he received an "honorary grand gold" medal in Paris, while Kraków city council presented him with a ceremonial scepter, as a symbol of his "royal status in fine art". 

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Zakuwana Polska/ Polonia, Rok 1863, c. 1864
Oil on canvas
Height: 158 cm (62.2 in); Width: 232 cm (91.3 in)
Czartoryski Museum 

The aftermath of the failure of the January Uprising. The crowd of captives awaits transport to Siberia. Russian officers and soldiers supervise a blacksmith installing fetters on the wrists of a woman representing Poland. The blonde woman behind her, next in line, may represent Lithuania.

Matejko did not find any opportunity to display the work in public and – afraid of repression and fearing for his and his family's safety – he hid it behind the stove in his house. It remained hidden there for several years. More on this painting

In 1879 came his Rok, 1863 - Polonia, 1863, his depiction of the January Uprising (See above). Begun in 1864 as the Uprising was waning, he abandoned the canvas for a number of years, perhaps due to the loss of several close friends and family members in the conflict. It languished unfinished until prince Władysław Czartoryski became interested in acquiring it. To this day it is considered unfinished.

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Prussian Homage, c. 1182
Oil on canvas
388 cm × 785 cm (152.75 in × 309.05 in)
National Museum in Kraków 

Depicted people:  
  • Albert, Duke in Prussia
  • Sigismund I the Old, Sigismund I the Old was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until his death in 1548.
  • Sigismund II Augustus was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548. He was the first ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the last male monarch from the Jagiellonian dynasty.
  • Piotr Opaliński (1586–1624), of Łodzia coat of arms, was a Polish–Lithuanian noble
  • Józef Szujski, professor of the Jagiellonian University
  • George of Brandenburg-Ansbach, known as George the Pious, was a Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach from the House of Hohenzollern.
  • Frederick II, Duke of Legnica, also known as the Great of Legnica, was a Duke of Legnica.
  • Luke Hill II arms Łodzia was Bishop Kuyavian-Pomeranian from 1538 .
  • was a Roman Catholic Bishop of Przemyśl and Poznań, Archbishop of Kraków, Vice-Chancellor of the Crown, and Royal Secretary.
  • Friedrich von Heydeck was commander, advisor to Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, High Master of the Teutonic Order, then Duke of Prussia
  • Hieronymus Jarosław Laski, was a Polish diplomat born of an illustrious Polish family. Laski was the nephew of Archbishop John Laski 
  • Jan Łaski was a Polish Reformed reformer. Owing to his influential work in England during the English Reformation
  • Anna Radziwiłłówna was a Lithuanian noble woman and Duchess of Masovia.
  • Janusz III of Masovia, was a Polish prince, member of the House of Piast in the Masovian branch.
  • Hedwig Jagiellon was a granddaughter of Emperor Sigismund and of the Jagiellonian dynasty as daughter of Sigismund I the Old of Poland. She was Electress of Brandenburg.
  • Mauritius Ferber was a member of the patrician Ferber family. A Roman Catholic Prince-Bishop of Warmia 
  • Krzysztof Kreutzer, Prussian diplomat
  • Bona Sforza d’Aragona was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania as the second wife of Sigismund I the Old, and Duchess of Bari and Rossano by her own right.
  • Teodora Matejko was the wife of the artist
  • Piotr Kmita Sobieński of the Kmita noble family, Count of Wiśnicz, Szreniawa, he was Grand Marshal of the Crown from 1529 onwards, voivode and starosta of Kraków...
  • Przecław Lanckoroński was a notable member of the Polish szlachta, a knight often identified as the first hetman of the Cossacks in service of Poland, as well as a landowner and starost of Chmielnik.
  • Konstanty Iwanowicz Ostrogski was a prince and magnate of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later a Grand Hetman of Lithuania
  • Jan Tarnowski was Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland.
  • Andrzej Jędrzej Kościelecki was a Marshal of the household of Cardinal Fryderyk
  • Krzysztof Szydłowiecki was a Polish noble, magnate, Count of Szydłowiec.
  • Mikołaj Firlej was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), hetman, diplomat, and expert of southeast Europe.
  • Andrzej Tęczyński, was Count. He came from one of the most powerful clans in Lesser Poland, the Tęczyński family.
  • Albertas Goštautas was a Lithuanian noble of the Goštautai family from ethnic Lithuanian lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
  • Stańczyk was the court jester when Poland was at the height of its political, economic and cultural power
  • Bartolommeo Berrecci was an Italian Renaissance architect who spent most of his career in Poland.
  • Seweryn Boner, Polish banker and burger
The painting depicts the "Prussian Homage," a significant political event from the time of the Renaissance in Poland in which Albrecht of Hohenzollern, the Duke of Prussia paid tribute and swore allegiance to King Sigismund I the Old in Kraków's market square on 10 April 1525. Matejko depicted over thirty important figures of the Polish Renaissance period, taking the liberty of including several who were not actually present at the event. More on this painting

1880-1882 were taken up with another large work, The Prussian Tribute (Hołd Pruski) which Matejko gifted to "the Polish nation". It earned him the honorary citizenship of Kraków (See above). One of the city's squares was renamed Matejko Square. In 1883 he finished Jan Sobieski at Vienna which came to be presented to Pope Leo XIII as a "gift of the Polish nation" (See below). Being a member of the delegation delivering the canvas to Rome, Matejko was awarded the Knight Commander with Star of the Order of Pius IX. The painting is on permanent exhibition in the Sobieski Room at the Vatican Museums. 

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
Jan Sobieski at Vienna, c. between 1882 and 1883
Oil on canvas
Height: 458 cm (15 ft); Width: 894 cm (29.3 ft)
Vatican Museums 

Depicted people:
  • John III Sobieski was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death.
  • Jan Kazimierz Denhoff was a Polish cardinal from 1686, Abbot of the Mogiła Abbey, Dean of Płock, a canon of Kraków in 1681 and Bishop of Cesena in 1688. 
Siege of Vienna, (July 17–September 12, 1683), expedition by the Ottomans against the Habsburg Holy Roman emperor Leopold I that resulted in their defeat by a combined force led by John III Sobieski of Poland. The lifting of the siege marked the beginning of the end of Ottoman domination in eastern Europe. More on Jan Sobieski at Vienna

Around that time he also became vocal on a number of political issues, publishing letters on topics such as Polish-Russian relations. He was also very engaged in efforts to protect and reconstruct historical monuments in Kraków. In 1886, he finished a painting relating to French rather than Polish history, The Virgin of Orléans, a portrayal of Joan of Arc (See below).

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893)
The Virgin of Orleans, c. 1886
Oil on canvas
Size Height: 484.0 cm; Width: 973.0 cm
National Museum in Poznań 

Joan of Arc, The Virgin of Orleans, a peasant girl living in medieval France. At the age of 13, Joan began to hear voices, which she determined had been sent by God to give her a mission of overwhelming importance: to save France by expelling its enemies, and to install Charles as its rightful king. 
With no military training, Joan convinced the embattled crown prince Charles of Valois to allow her to lead a French army to the besieged city of Orléans, where it achieved a momentous victory over the English and their French allies, the Burgundians. After seeing the prince crowned King Charles VII, Joan was captured by Anglo-Burgundian forces, tried for witchcraft and heresy and burned at the stake in 1431, at the age of 19. By the time she was officially canonized in 1920, the Maid of Orléans (as she was known) had long been considered one of history’s greatest saints, and an enduring symbol of French unity and nationalism. More on Joan of Arc

Jan Matejko  (1838–1893) 
Battle of Raclawice, c. 1888
Oil on canvas
Height: 465 cm (15.2 ft); Width: 879 cm (28.8 ft)
National Museum in Kraków 
Depicted people:
  • Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko was a Polish-Lithuanian military engineer, statesman, and military leader who became a national hero in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and the United States.
  • Hugo Stumberg Kołłątaj,  was a prominent Polish constitutional reformer and educationalist, and one of the most prominent figures of the Polish Enlightenment. He served as Deputy Chancellor of the Crown, 1791–92. He was a Roman Catholic priest, social and political activist, political thinker, historian, philosopher, and polymath.
  • Antoni Madaliński was a Polish Lieutenant General, commander of 1st Greater Polish National Cavalry Brigade during Kościuszko Uprising.
  • Prince Józef Zajączek was a Polish general and politician.
The Battle of Racławice was one of the first battles of the Polish-Lithuanian Kościuszko Uprising against Russia. It was fought on 4 April 1794 near the village of Racławice in Lesser Poland. More on Battle of Racławice

The outcome of the battle was a tactical Polish victory, with Kościuszko defeating the numerically inferior enemy. However, his forces were too small to undertake a successful pursuit, and the Corps of General Denisov evaded destruction and continued to operate in Lesser Poland. More on Battle of Racławice

In 1887 Matejko received an Honorary Doctorate from the Jagiellonian University, and recognition from the Austrian Society, Litteris et Artibus. In 1888 he completed The Battle of Racławice (See above). In 1888-1899, to justify his new academic title, he published a group of twelve drawings with accompanying commentary, The History of civilization in Poland. Between 1890 and 1892, he published a series of works on paper, portraying all the monarchs of Poland. The kings and princes of Poland, including queens), whose popularity turned them into the canon portrayals of their subjects. 1891 marked his Constitution of the 3 May. He went on to compose another large scale work, The Oaths of Jan Kazimierz (Śluby Jana Kazimierza), but death intervened. In 1892, a year before his death, he completed his Self-portrait. More on Jan Matejko




Please visit my other blogs: Art CollectorMythologyMarine ArtPortrait of a Lady, The OrientalistArt of the Nude and The Canals of VeniceMiddle East Artists365 Saints and 365 Days, also visit my Boards on Pinterest

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.

Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.


20 Works, June 26th. is Pierre-Jules Jollivet's day, his story, illustrated with footnotes #173

Pierre Jules Jollivet, 1794-1871 The Creation of Eve Painting on lava Malesherbes city, IX ardt. I have no further description, at this time...